The German Shepherd is hands down one of the most versatile dog breeds around. This is an intelligent breed capable of doing a wide variety of jobs. The original job of the dog was as a multi-purpose herder that could protect the flock, home and family, and be a companion pet at the end of the day. However, a split occurred that took the breed in two very different directions and created an American bloodline and a German bloodline.
Captain Max von Stephanitz is the German breeder who developed the German Shepherd dog. He wanted to create a smart, strong, courageous, protective and adaptable herding dog capable of doing his job and then returning home to his family to play with the children. Von Stephanitz was interested in the working ability of the breed, and everything he did was to preserve the characteristics and traits of the dog he developed.
In 1899, he mixed early versions of shepherd dogs to come up with the Deutsche Schäferhunde, the German Shepherd dog, and wrote the standard for the breed in 1901. Soon after, von Stephanitz created a test to evaluate each dog’s herding ability, and Schutzhund to measure their mental stability, protection ability, courage, willingness to work and obedience. Both tests determine if a dog is a good candidate to use in a breeding program. Any German Shepherd bred in Germany and Europe to this day must earn a Schutzhund I title or a certificate in herding in order to be used in breeding.
During and after WW II, many dog breeds were on the brink of extinction, including the German Shepherd. A lack of food and a distemper outbreak took a toll on the number of dogs throughout Europe. It was after the war when the American line and German line went in different directions, with American breeders more interested in breeding for show quality and the German breeders wanting to preserve the working traits of the breed.
The American Bloodline
The most pronounced difference between the American line and German line is the extreme angulation of the hindquarters, and the body has more of an angle from the front to the back. Both bloodlines adhere to the same standard, but the difference between American and German lines lies in the interpretation of the breed standard. American German Shepherds are slightly taller and longer then their German counterparts. The head is more refined, their body is a bit longer and angled, and they are generally heavier and lighter boned.
These dogs are bred for the show ring, and appearance and movement is the main focus of breeders. The sloped back gives the dog a “flying trot” which is the desired movement in the show ring. Compared to the German and European line, the American bloodline is considered by some to be a separate breed. They aren’t a working dog, although some American bred GSDs have been successful as a herder. However, they aren’t suited for police or military work, search and rescue or Schutzhund. Their coat color can be the traditional black and tan saddle pattern, solid black or white, bi-colors or sable. The breed standard for the American line is regulated by the American Kennel Club.
The German Bloodline
The one and only goal of German breeders is to maintain the working ability and temperament of the German Shepherd. Rin Tin Tin is from the German bloodline of the breed. These dogs are usually darker in color than the American bred dogs, with the traditional black and tan saddle pattern. The back doesn’t have the severe slope, nor does the dog have the “flying trot.” Canines from the German line are used in military and police work, search and rescue, Schutzhund, herding, protection and a variety of other jobs.
The German bloodline takes a very different interpretation of the breed standard which is regulated by the German Shepherd Club of Germany (SV) and strives to continue breeding the German Shepherd Dog for the characteristics and traits that were developed by von Stephanitz.
It’s important to understand the differences between the two bloodlines because it will matter which one you decide to get. Most German Shepherds from the American line will be impressive in the show ring because that’s the job they are bred to do. Some may do well in herding trials, agility, obedience or other dog sports, but they don’t have the temperament for Schutzhund or any other protection type of work. German Shepherds from the German bloodline excel at a variety of jobs, but they will not catch the eye of a judge in an American show ring.
Both bloodlines are bred to do a job, and if you are looking to add a German Shepherd to your family, knowing the difference between the two lines helps you decide which one is right for you. Have some knowledge about the breed before you buy, and make sure you’re dealing with a reputable breeder.
Top photo by gomagoti
Middle photo by martinilounge834
Bottom photo by Kristine Gunter
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