What is Fly-Snapping Syndrome?

Langley's dog fly snapBy Langley Cornwell

I wanted to write this article because one of our pups has developed a new tic. At first we thought it was just another oddity specific to him, but when I researched the characteristics of his new tic, I discovered it was a real syndrome: Fly-Snapping Syndrome.

There are times when we are all relaxing in the family room and suddenly Big Al will repeatedly snap at the air as if a swarm of insects are flying around his head. He seems to focus his eyes on the area right in front of his face, and move his head around as if he’s looking at flies, even though nothing is there. Then he’ll often become fixated on staring at his front legs, as if he expects to find something crawling on them. He may start licking his front legs, and then go back to staring into space and snapping at imaginary flies. Our dog’s episodes of snapping at invisible insects can be infrequent, or can occur repeatedly throughout the day.

What are Compulsive Behaviors?

Fly-Snapping (also called fly-biting) is one of many compulsive behaviors that dogs commonly display. Other compulsive behaviors include tail chasing, spinning, pacing, toy fixation, shadow or light chasing, repeated licking, chewing or scratching, flank sucking, excessive water drinking and nonstop barking. Some dogs display compulsive behaviors over and over to the point where the behaviors interfere with their normal lives.

Compulsive canine behaviors include any repetitive actions that dogs perform unprompted. Normal dogs may engage in similar activities, but they usually do so in response to specific triggers and not compulsively.

What Causes Fly-Snapping Syndrome?

Canine Fly-Snapping Syndrome can be an obsessive-compulsive behavior problem, the result of genetics or caused by an array of issues that range from eye problems to a form of epilepsy. The fact is, veterinary neurologists and other experts do not all agree on the cause(s), so the syndrome is generally labeled as an idiopathic disorder, which means the cause is unknown. The thought that fly-snapping is a kind of complex partial seizure is a theory that is gaining traction, but the evidence has not been substantiated.
Langley's dog Big Al fly snapping
The belief that Fly-Snapping Syndrome is a form of epilepsy stems from the knowledge that hallucinations can be an indicator of epilepsy in humans. Furthermore, epileptic seizures can cause isolated actions in both humans and canines.

My husband and I studied our dog the other night when he was having a fly-snapping episode. As he studiously chomped at the air, it was impossible to determine whether he was seeing imaginary insects or experiencing involuntary movements. When he starts fly-snapping, his actions are so focused and convincing that I’m leaning towards the belief that he is actually experiencing hallucinations; but of course, he can’t tell us.

How to Help a Dog with Fly-Snapping Syndrome

If your dog seems to bite at imaginary flying insects or shows any other common compulsive behaviors, the first thing to do is to rule out possible medical conditions. After we got Big Al checked out by our veterinarian, there were several things we learned to do.

As soon as our dog starts to snap at the air, we distract him. It’s usually something as simple as calling his name and inviting him up on the sofa with us. We’ve also had good success with redirecting his attention to a puzzle-type toy stuffed with CANIDAE Life Stages Bakery Snacks. Sometimes we’ll ask him to perform a previously learned trick. Anything that distracts him or redirects his attention will usually break the spell.

Since we noticed Big Al’s fly-snapping episodes, we’ve also been diligent about providing him more mental and physical stimulation. We’ve increased the duration of our walks and added more interactive games to our daily routine. All of these things seem to be working for him.

If you have any advice about managing Fly-Snapping Syndrome, please share your suggestions in the comment section below.

Photos: “Big Al” by Langley Cornwell

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24 thoughts on “What is Fly-Snapping Syndrome?

  1. This is a great article, thank you. We have a 12 year old terrier mix who has remained a very active dog though she is showing signs of age. She recently had liver issues which we successfully corrected for now with a new diet and meds. Our vet has been very helpful through the process. It has only been a couple weeks now but she has been snapping at the air occasionally. Similar to others mentioned in the blog, she starts looking around, slowly focusing in on something in front of or behind her, waits and then bites at the air. If she is laying down when this occurs she some times licks her legs afterwards. She is easily distracted to stop her air bites and is not affecting her mood at all. We remain very active with her, but did recently introduce a wheat treat which we will stop and record results. Will keep you posted.

  2. We have a chihuahua&pugg mixed. That has the problem of “fly hitting” seizure. And she has been with us for 6 years. She is part of our family and we don’t want to loose her. We need to find a cure.

  3. We have a 5 yr rottie. After much testing and vet visits, we were advised by an employee of a local specialty pet supplies store to add goat milk with her food once a day. We use Answers Goat Milk once every other day with her food and her fly biting days have never come back.
    Good luck everyone!

  4. My 3 year old bulldog has been ‘fly-biting’ for about a month–on and off—seems like when the Missouri weather changes it’s when it really gets her…Episode at midnight last night–approx 20-30 min and today 17 min long. Took her right in, Dr said where’s her neck? I looked puzzled at him and he said she doesn’t have one, she’s a bulldog!!—she’s choking on her spit…which, after thinking about it–makes sense–she smacks, acts like she’s having trouble swallowing and when done–heads right for the water bowl. He gave her a cortisone shot today and said when she’s starting one of these fits, give her honey—I did and it stopped it RIGHT AWAY!! So her allergies cause this….

    I have a toy rat terrier, Buddy, 6 years old now, who is a seizure dog on seizure meds. Buddy also has fly snapping syndrome linked to his seizures as well as associated with Flea and Tick meds use during March – October. Additionally, I have found that when Buddy has ear problems (infections, debris etc) he also starts to fly snap. It took me along time to figure out those triggers but once I did, I was able to get a better grip on his fly snapping. My vet keeps me with a steady supply of ear products and we are currently working on the best route for flea and tick control. Just thought I’d share these alternative causes for fly snapping to help someone else out

  6. Thank you so much for writing this article I have an English bulldog almost 2 years old and she just started doing this out of no where yesterday but it got really bad just now (after a full day of walks play and toys) so I decided to google her symptoms and this was exactly on point everything that she’s doing except for the fact that she’s looking up instead of down at her feet I think this is the first time and it’s making her scared so I’m just comforting her as much as possible but she’s been hiding in my bathroom but least I know what it is now

  7. Our labrador has this problem occasionally so we changed all his food and treats to hypo allergenic and he stopped having the episodes. Wheat seemed to be a problem, esp dog biscuits. Please try this for your lovely dogs.

  8. My albino great dane who already has depth perception problems had now been snaking at imaginary flies. Like the above article mention, she seems to be starting straight at whatever it is she thinks she’s is seeing. I can be standing right in front of her face and it’s as if she doesn’t see me, but sees a fly and starts snapping at it. She’s never ever aggressive with her snapping. I’m trying to figure out a way to distract her. I can’t call her name because she’s deaf. Any advice?

  9. My 9 yr old Shih-Pom recently started nipping at blankets, sofa, etc. as if something was there. I checked when she started and absolutely nothing could be found. Not even a loose thread. Could this be the same as fly-bighting even tho on a surface??

  10. My dog started this when she was a young adult. I was so confused by it that I litterally got a magnifying glass and laid next to her staring into the air she was snapping at. I only detected small particles of dust in the air and concluded that she thought they were flies? And my human eyes couldn’t see them.

  11. My dog has started exhibiting this behavior as well, well sort of. I think he would snap at the flies he thinks are there, but the only time he’s around flies is when they’re horse/deer flies. Which he HATES. instead of snapping he tucks tail and moves around and “listens” for them. Do you think this is just his version of “fly snapping”?

  12. My dog started this fly biting syndrome a couple of days ago and I kept thinking it was a nat or something. I began to question myself but when we went to my moms she did the same thing. Going to vet ASAP!

  13. I have a little dog that started this as a puppy. It was a rescue dog, I got when he was about 10 weeks old , when he began to have seizures several times a day and the owner could not afford a vet. I took him to a specialist, at first they thought he had a liver shunt, but did not. We put him on Potassium salts, that I had compounded at the pharmancy into a liquid, which I gave 2 or 3 times a day. It stopped the seizures and we weaned him off of it . He still does the fly biting when he is stressed.

  14. My eleven year old pug has just started this fly-biting behavior.
    He has been having problems with his eyes and you can see
    the cloudiness. He blinks often and his eyes water. I don’t notice
    the fly-biting behavior during the day time. Mostly at night when
    we are watching TV. So not sure what is going on. I have heard
    that fly-biting may be cause by eye problems.

  15. Ok so my dog Fozzy started fly biting 2 years ago. My vet put him on phenobarbital. My once lively, active dog was now over-medicated, lethargic and acting drunk. I was devasted. My vet reassured me that he would get used to the meds, but I also hated how I had to bring him in for regular labs to check his liver function. The fly biting stopped so I went along with it. When he began fly biting again and she wanted to increase the dose I said no way. Why give him something that’s decreasing his life span and potentially ruining organs? He had gained weight and just wasn’t the same. I did some heavy research and found they were giving CBD (cannabinoid) oil to children with epilepsy. Yes it comes from the hemp plant, no it is not marijuana and does not get your dog high, it doesn’t have THC in it. It’s completely legal, you can buy it online. I live in Arizona so sometime I go to a dispensary to get it but mostly I buy it from Amazon. I have been giving him the CBD oil with Bach flower oil pet rescue remedy (can buy at whole foods or amazon too) for about 8 months and he’s been fly biting free! It’s crazy how many benefits the CBD oil has, it helps for anxiety, arthritis, neurological issues, etc. I strongly urge you all to read up about it and even read some of the reviews on amazon. The kind I use for Fozzy is Ultra CBD cannabinoid oil 400mg. He is an 8lb yorkie/chihuahua and I give him 1/4 of the dropper 2 times a day. There’s absolutely no side effects like with the anticonvulsant meds. so I like that and I’ve had amazing results from it. I’ve seen a lot of websites that are actually selling dog treats and stuff with the cannabinoid in it too but it’s cheaper just to buy the tincture and put the drops in your dogs mouth or food yourself.

  16. My Shiba Inu started fly biting at the age of two, which at rare times have now turned into seizures. I work at a Veterinary Clinic and one of the Doctors had read a study about B-12, in our case we thought that he has to much acid which created stomach ulcers so we put him on Omeprazole also. Everyday for two years he takes one Omeprazole and one B-12 and his fly biting has almost completely gone away. At rare times we will still catch him starting but after we distract him he is back to his normal self. I don’t know if this would help anyone else but it is worth a try since B-12 isn’t toxic to them.

  17. Our dog is 2 YO, and has been biting imaginary flies for about one and a half years. She licks her paws until they are raw, she chews herself until her hair is removed from her rear and her tail, and scratches incessantly until she leaves welts. She drinks water as if we lived in the desert (we don’t), and is just plain miserable. She is home alone for approx. 6-8 hours a day, and Elizabethan collars and muzzles did not stop her from doing this.
    We are at a loss…

  18. My 5 year old Labrador has been doing this since he turned one. My vet struggled to decide whether it was an OCD or neurological/epileptic condition and ended up settling with the latter. At his worst he snaps on a very regular basis and I’m talking all through the day every day when it’s not being controlled and he paces, is really freaked out by it all and just wants to hide or snuggle up to us. In the early years he used to find solace by sitting outside on his own, even in the snow and he’s usually not a dog that spends time on his own outside if we’re not out there too. Previous medication includes phenobarbital medd, diazepam and now bromide meds. All of them have helped in the past but his body seems to become accustomed to them over time and they are then not so effective. My pet insurance on this condition is all used up and he is costing me a fortune each month but after a long period of stability (it virtually disappeared) his snapping is getting worse again which is why I’m back on the net to see if there has been a miracle cure since I last looked! Not only does he freak out when it’s happening, it stresses me out listening to it and seeing him freak out and the worry about the cost but it also stresses my daughter out because she can see me getting stressed! I’m struggling to see what else there is left to try without throwing more money that I can’t afford at it, but I’d never be able to re-home him and I can’t face the only other option because otherwise he is a very lovely, perfectly helpful dog.

  19. Thank you so much for posting this…yesterday my Beauty started snapping at the air and then just stand there fixated on something I could not see…Im convinced as well that she is seeing “flies”..she is doing exactly like you described above..staring at her legs and snapping at the air. She wont leave my side and she kept me up till 1 am with the snapping..her demeanor has changed as well…she is usually very happy and playful and really liked to snuggle….now she just stands there looking for stuff thats not there. I dont have the money for a vet right now so Im really concerned. Today the snapping is not as bad so far but she isnt herself either. Im trying all that you suggested and hopefully it will help until I can get her in to a vet.

  20. Our dog just started this syndrome. He doesn’t snap at the flies, though. He cries and then starts to growl. Putting him outside seems to help, but as soon as he comes back in, it starts all over. Petting him helps a little, but not much. He just started on phenobarbitol, so we’ll have to see how it goes. But you just feel so helpless.

  21. My 10 y/o dog suddenly started having fly snapping and other anxiety symptoms about 10 days ago. The vet couldn’t find anything obviously wrong with her, but prescribed pain meds because pain from an underlying illness can cause anxiety symptoms.
    I then came across this article which describes most of her symptoms to a tee. These symptoms were caused by GI tract problems in the study dogs. I am now suspicious that she has something like this going on rather than a seizure type problem.


  22. Our dog also fly bites, it was so serve that we couldn’t redirect her attention. It was if she would go into a trance. We would have to touch her to get her to snap out of. We changed her diet to no grain and got her off chicken and went to a salmon dog food. This change seemed to help a little more but they weren’t gone.
    So we talked to our vet and he proscribed her phenobarbital anti seizure meds. That seemed to help alot. She’s gone on this med and no grain salmon food for about a year. I can differently tell a different. They aren’t as frequent and not as serve. Yes still still fly bits here and there but nothing as bad as it was.

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