Scientists have believed for many years that dogs evolved from wolves, and most likely became domesticated when humans settled down and turned to agriculture. However, a study in early 2014 contradicts this belief with evidence that points to a common ancestor of dogs and wolves, and a domestication process that took place earlier than once thought.
The one thing scientists know for certain is that new evidence continues to be uncovered about when, where, how and why dogs became man’s best friend. Fossilized dog skulls and bones help peel back the hands of time to give researchers more insight into the domestication of dogs.
In the field of biology, evolution is a generation-to-generation change in the gene pool through natural selection, mutation, migration or genetic drift – which is random change in a population’s gene pool based on chance and usually occurs only in small isolated populations. The consensus was that dogs started to evolve from the gray wolf around 10,000 years ago. New research has found dogs and wolves split off from a now extinct common ancestor somewhere between 9,000 and 34,000 years ago. What caused the ancestor to die off is a mystery.
The Clever Dog Lab is a research center in Vienna, Austria that’s been around for about six years. It’s one of a handful of centers around the world studying dogs to see how they think and why they behave in certain ways. The researchers’ main goals are to learn more about canine personality, how dogs view their world, how they compare to other species when performing a variety of cognitive tests, and how they problem solve.
For years, canines were thought of as animals with limited intelligence, understanding and emotions. Fortunately, a flurry of research conducted on our four legged friends in recent years paints a much different picture. Researchers are getting into the minds and hearts of dogs, and discovering the importance of our relationship with canines.
More than 600 volunteer dogs are used for the research at the Clever Dog Lab. The dogs are a variety of ages and breeds, both mixed and purebreds. Dog owners lend their pets to the research team that is trying to answer questions concerning our canine friends. Scientists believe that learning how dogs think and why they behave in certain ways can help them learn more about our own behaviors and our brains.
Anyone who has spent quality time with a dog understands how complicated canines can be. Like us, dogs view the world from their own individual perspective. An interesting new study has found that dogs see things in an optimistic or pessimistic way, and how your dog behaves could be because he sees his dish of CANIDAE as “half full” or “half empty.”
How we interpret events in our lives is based on our world view. We are idealists, realists, optimists or pessimists, and how we react to different situations depends on our mental attitude. An optimistic person sees the glass as half full and has faith that any given situation will have the best possible outcome. A pessimist sees the glass as half empty and doesn’t have confidence that a positive outcome will occur.
Have you ever seen a dog that bore a striking resemblance to his human? Perhaps that dog was yours, and the human was you? A new study took a look at the belief that dogs look like their owners, and concluded it’s not a coincidence after all. Many dogs really do resemble their owners, and strangers are able to match owners with their dogs with amazing accuracy, just by looking at their face.
Sadahiko Nakajima, a psychologist from Kwansei Gakuin University in Japan, wanted to find out if people really could match dog owners with their canine friends just by looking at photographs of their faces. He wasn’t the first to conduct this kind of experiment, and his results were similar to what other researchers had discovered. Many dog owners do have a physical resemblance to their dogs.
But Nakajima didn’t stop there. He didn’t understand how complete strangers were able to match owners with their dogs with such an impressive and significant rate that was higher than mere chance. Nakajima recently decided to do another experiment to try and figure out if the resemblance was based on any particular feature on the face. He reasoned there must be something more than luck guiding the people who were looking at the photographs.
Satisfaction is that good feeling you get after finding a solution to a difficult problem. We all have “eureka moments” when all of the pieces fall into place, allowing us to finally figure something out. According to new research, dogs also have eureka moments. Your dog’s favorite treat is the “paycheck” that canines prize – along with the opportunity to earn it. The treat is the motivating factor, but working for it is just as important to canines. It seems that humans are not the only species to get satisfaction and pleasure from completing a challenging task.
Researchers in Sweden tested 12 Beagles paired up into six groups. Six different pieces of equipment were introduced to the dogs. When used correctly, each piece made a distinctive noise to indicate when the task was completed. An example of equipment used included playing a key on a toy piano, pressing a paddle lever that rang a bell, and pushing a plastic box off a stack that made a noise when it hit the floor. In each pair of dogs, one was an experimental dog and the other one was a control dog.
After all 12 dogs were trained, they were taken to a testing area where the equipment was set up. At the entrance was a holding area where each dog waited to perform their specific task. An assistant led him to the starting arena, then turned their back and gave no interaction or instructions to the dog.
Scientists have known for decades that some mammals, bees, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish are capable of seeing ultraviolet light. A new study published earlier this year has added dogs and cats to the list of animals that can see UV light. This means that dogs and cats can see things we can’t, which might explain why your pet stares at something that’s invisible to you.
On the color spectrum, the visible light we can see includes red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet. Ultraviolet light sits above violet, and is invisible to us because the lenses in our eyes block out ultraviolet wavelengths that can be harmful. UV light has shorter wavelengths than the visible light we can see.
Before this study came out, scientists believed dogs and cats also had protective lenses on their eyes that would filter out UV light, but they don’t. They have UV transparent lenses which allow the light to enter into the retina where it’s converted into nerve signals, sent to the brain and processed by the visual system. In addition to dogs and cats, rodents, hedgehogs, ferrets and okapis (an African animal related to giraffes) were all added to the list of animals with transparent lens. And the amount of UV light they can detect is significant.
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